3. GNU Taler Merchant Backend Operator Manual

3.1. Introduction

3.1.1. About GNU Taler

GNU Taler is an open protocol for an electronic payment system with a free software reference implementation. GNU Taler offers secure, fast and easy payment processing using well understood cryptographic techniques. GNU Taler allows customers to remain anonymous, while ensuring that merchants can be held accountable by governments. Hence, GNU Taler is compatible with anti-money-laundering (AML) and know-your-customer (KYC) regulation, as well as data protection regulation (such as GDPR).

GNU Taler is not yet production-ready, after following this manual you will have a backend that can process payments in “KUDOS”, but not regular currencies. This is not so much because of limitations in the backend, but because we are not aware of a Taler exchange operator offering regular currencies today.

3.1.2. About this manual

This tutorial targets system administrators who want to install a GNU Taler merchant backend.

We expect some moderate familiarity with the compilation and installation of free software packages. An understanding of cryptography is not required.

This first chapter of the tutorial will give a brief overview of the overall Taler architecture, describing the environment in which the Taler backend operates. The second chapter then explains how to install the software, including key dependencies. The third chapter will explain how to configure the backend, including in particular the configuration of the bank account details of the merchant.

The last chapter gives some additional information about advanced topics which will be useful for system administrators but are not necessary for operating a basic backend.

3.1.3. Architecture overview

Taler is a pure payment system, not a new crypto-currency. As such, it operates in a traditional banking context. In particular, this means that in order to receive funds via Taler, the merchant must have a regular bank account, and payments can be executed in ordinary currencies such as USD or EUR. For testing purposes, Taler uses a special currency “KUDOS” and includes its own special bank.

The Taler software stack for a merchant consists of four main components:

  • A frontend which interacts with the customer’s browser. The frontend enables the customer to build a shopping cart and place an order. Upon payment, it triggers the respective business logic to satisfy the order. This component is not included with Taler, but rather assumed to exist at the merchant. The Merchant API Tutorial gives an introduction for how to integrate Taler with Web shop frontends.
  • A back office application that enables the shop operators to view customer orders, match them to financial transfers, and possibly approve refunds if an order cannot be satisfied. This component is not included with Taler, but rather assumed to exist at the merchant. The Merchant Backend API provides the API specification that should be reviewed to integrate such a back office with the Taler backend.
  • A Taler-specific payment backend which makes it easy for the frontend to process financial transactions with Taler. This manual primarily describes how to install and configure this backend.
  • A DBMS which stores the transaction history for the Taler backend. For now, the GNU Taler reference implemenation only supports Postgres, but the code could be easily extended to support another DBMS. Please review the Postgres documentation for details on how to configure the database.

The following image illustrates the various interactions of these key components:


Basically, the backend provides the cryptographic protocol support, stores Taler-specific financial information in a DBMS and communicates with the GNU Taler exchange over the Internet. The frontend accesses the backend via a RESTful API. As a result, the frontend never has to directly communicate with the exchange, and also does not deal with sensitive data. In particular, the merchant’s signing keys and bank account information is encapsulated within the Taler backend.

A typical deployment will additionally include a full-blown Web server (like Apache or Nginx). Such a Web server would be responsible for TLS termination and access control to the /private/ API endpoints of the merchant backend. Please carefully review the section on Secure setup before deploying a Taler merchant backend to production.

3.2. Terminology

This chapter describes some of the key concepts used throughout the manual.

3.2.1. Instances

The backend allows the user to run multiple instances of shops with distinct business entities sharing a single backend. Each instance uses its own bank accounts and key for signing contracts. All major accounting functionality is separate per instance. What is shared is the database, HTTP(S) address and the main Taler configuration (accepted currency, exchanges and auditors).

3.2.2. Accounts

To receive payments, an instance must have configured one or more bank accounts. The backend does not have accounts for users, and instances are also not really ‘accounts’. So whenever we use the term account, it is about a bank account of a merchant.

3.2.3. Inventory

The Taler backend offers inventory management as an optional function. Inventory is tracked per instance and consists of products sold in units. Inventory can be finite or infinite (for digital products). Products may include previews (images) to be shown to the user and other meta-data. Inventory management allows the frontend to lock products, reserving them for a particular (unpaid) order. The backend can keep track of how many units of a product remain in stock and ensure that the number of units sold does not exceed the number of units in stock.

Inventory management is optional, and it is possible for the frontend to include products in orders that are not in the inventory, or to override prices of products in the inventory.

3.2.4. Orders and Contracts

In Taler, users pay merchants for orders. An order is first created by the merchant, where the merchant specifies the specific terms of the order.

After an order is created, it is claimed by a wallet. Once an order is claimed by a specific wallet, only that wallet will be able to pay for this order, to the exclusion of other wallets even if they see the same order URL.

A wallet may pay for a claimed order, at which point the order turns into a (paid) contract. Orders have an expiration date after which the commercial offer expires and any stock of products locked by the order is released, allowing the stock to be sold in other orders.

Once a contract has been paid, the merchant should fulfill the contract. It is possible for the merchant to refund a contract order, for example if the contract cannot be fulfilled after all. Refunds are only possible until the exchange has wired the payment to the merchant. Once the funds have been wired, refunds are no longer allowed by the Taler exchange. The wire deadline specifies the latest time by which an exchange must wire the funds, while the (earlier) refund deadline specifies the earliest time when an exchange may wire the funds.

Contract information is kept for legal reasons, typically to provide tax records in case of a tax audit. After the legal expiration (by default a decade), contract information is deleted.

3.2.5. Transfers

The Taler backend can be used to verify that the exchange correctly wired all of the funds to the merchant. However, the backend does not have access to the incoming wire transfers of the merchant’s bank account. Thus, merchants must manually provide the backend with wire transfer data that specifies the wire transfer subject and the amount that was received. Given this information, the backend can detect and report any irregularities that might arise.

3.2.6. Tipping

Taler does not only allow a Website to be paid, but also to make voluntary, non-contractual payments to visitors, called tips. Such tips could be granted as a reward for filling in surveys or watching advertisements. For tips, there is no contract, tips are always voluntary actions by the Web site that do not arise from a contractual obligation. Before a Web site can create tips, it must establish a reserve. Once a reserve has been established, the merchant can grant tips, allowing wallets to pick up the tip.

3.2.7. Reserves

A reserve is a pool of electronic cash at an exchange under the control of a private key. Merchants withdraw coins from a reserve when granting tips. A reserve is established by first generating the required key material in the merchant backend, and then wiring the desired amount of funds to the exchange.

An exchange will automatically close a reserve after a fixed period of time (typically about a month), wiring any remaining funds back to the merchant.

3.3. Installation

This chapter describes how to install the GNU Taler merchant backend.

3.3.1. Generic instructions

This section provides generic instructions for the merchant backend installation independent of any particular operating system. Operating system specific instructions are provided in the following sections. You should follow the operating system specific instructions if those are available, and only consult the generic instructions if no system-specific instructions are provided for your specific operating system.

Installation of dependencies

The following packages need to be installed before we can compile the backend:

  • autoconf >= 2.69
  • automake >= 1.14
  • libtool >= 2.4
  • autopoint >= 0.19
  • libltdl >= 2.4
  • libunistring >= 0.9.3
  • libcurl >= 7.26 (or libgnurl >= 7.26)
  • GNU libmicrohttpd >= 0.9.71
  • GNU libgcrypt >= 1.6
  • libsodium >= 1.0
  • libargon2 >= 20171227 (GNUnet 0.13 needs it to build, not actively used by GNU Taler)
  • libsqlite3 >= 3.0 (GNUnet 0.13 needs it to build, not actively used by GNU Taler)
  • libjansson >= 2.7
  • Postgres >= 9.6, including libpq
  • GNUnet (from Git)
  • GNU Taler exchange (from Git)

Except for the last two, these are available in most GNU/Linux distributions and should just be installed using the respective package manager.

The following sections will provide detailed instructions for installing the libgnunetutil and GNU Taler exchange dependencies.

Installing GNUnet

Before you install GNUnet, you must download and install the dependencies mentioned in the previous section, otherwise the build may succeed, but could fail to export some of the tooling required by GNU Taler.

To download and install GNUnet, proceed as follows:

$ git clone https://git.gnunet.org/gnunet/
$ cd gnunet/
$ ./bootstrap
$ ./configure [--prefix=GNUNETPFX]
$ # Each dependency can be fetched from non standard locations via
$ # the '--with-<LIBNAME>' option. See './configure --help'.
$ make
# make install

If you did not specify a prefix, GNUnet will install to /usr/local, which requires you to run the last step as root.

There is no need to actually run a GNUnet peer to use the Taler merchant backend – all the merchant needs from GNUnet is a number of headers and libraries!

Installing the GNU Taler exchange

After installing GNUnet, you can download and install the exchange as follows:

$ git clone https://git.taler.net/exchange/
$ cd exchange
$ ./bootstrap
$ ./configure [--prefix=EXCHANGEPFX] \
$ # Each dependency can be fetched from non standard locations via
$ # the '--with-<LIBNAME>' option. See './configure --help'.
$ make
# make install

If you did not specify a prefix, the exchange will install to /usr/local, which requires you to run the last step as root. You have to specify --with-gnunet=/usr/local if you installed GNUnet to /usr/local in the previous step.

There is no need to actually run a Taler exchange to use the Taler merchant backend – all the merchant needs from the Taler exchange is a few headers and libraries!

Installing the GNU Taler merchant backend

The following steps assume all dependencies are installed.

Use the following commands to download and install the merchant backend:

$ git clone https://git.taler.net/merchant/
$ cd merchant
$ ./bootstrap
$ ./configure [--prefix=PFX] \
              [--with-gnunet=GNUNETPFX] \
$ # Each dependency can be fetched from non standard locations via
$ # the '--with-<LIBNAME>' option. See './configure --help'.
$ make
# make install

If you did not specify a prefix, the exchange will install to /usr/local, which requires you to run the last step as root.

You have to specify --with-exchange=/usr/local and/or --with-exchange=/usr/local if you installed the exchange and/or GNUnet to /usr/local in the previous steps.

Depending on the prefixes you specified for the installation and the distribution you are using, you may have to edit /etc/ld.so.conf, adding lines for GNUNETPFX/lib/ and EXCHANGEPFX/lib/ and PFX/lib/ (replace the prefixes with the actual paths you used). Afterwards, you should run ldconfig. Without this step, it is possible that the linker may not find the installed libraries and launching the Taler merchant backend would then fail.

3.3.2. Installing Taler on Debian GNU/Linux

Debian wheezy is too old and lacks most of the packages required.

On Debian jessie, only GNU libmicrohttpd needs to be compiled from source. To install dependencies on Debian jesse, run the following commands:

# apt-get install \
  autoconf \
  automake \
  autopoint \
  libtool \
  libltdl-dev \
  libunistring-dev \
  libsodium-dev \
  libargon2-dev \
  libcurl4-gnutls-dev \
  libgcrypt20-dev \
  libjansson-dev \
  libpq-dev \
# wget https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/libmicrohttpd/libmicrohttpd-latest.tar.gz
# wget https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/libmicrohttpd/libmicrohttpd-latest.tar.gz.sig
# gpg -v libmicrohttpd-latest.tar.gz # Should show signed by 939E6BE1E29FC3CC
# tar xf libmicrohttpd-latest.tar.gz
# cd libmicrohttpd-0*
# ./configure
# make install

For more recent versions of Debian, you should instead run:

# apt-get install \
  autoconf \
  automake \
  autopoint \
  libtool \
  libltdl-dev \
  libunistring-dev \
  libsodium-dev \
  libargon2-dev \
  libcurl4-gnutls-dev \
  libgcrypt20-dev \
  libjansson-dev \
  libpq-dev \
  postgresql-9.5 \

For the rest of the installation, follow the generic installation instructions starting with the installation of libgnunetutil. Note that if you used the Debian wheezy instructions above, you need to pass --with-microhttpd=/usr/local/ to all configure invocations.

3.4. How to configure the merchant’s backend

The installation already provides reasonable defaults for most of the configuration options. However, some must be provided, in particular the database account and bank account that the backend should use. By default, the file $HOME/.config/taler.conf is where the Web shop administrator specifies configuration values that augment or override the defaults. The format of the configuration file is the well-known INI file format. You can edit the file by hand, or use the taler-config commands given as examples. For more information on taler-config, see Using taler-config.

3.4.1. Backend options

The following table describes the options that commonly need to be modified. Here, the notation [$section]/$option denotes the option $option under the section [$section] in the configuration file.

Service address

The following option sets the transport layer address used by the merchant backend:


If given,

  • TCP, then we need to set the TCP port in [MERCHANT]/PORT
  • UNIX, then we need to set the unix domain socket path and mode in [MERCHANT]/UNIXPATH and [MERCHANT]/UNIXPATH_MODE. The latter takes the usual permission mask given as a number, e.g. 660 for user/group read-write access.

The frontend can then connect to the backend over HTTP using the specified address. If frontend and backend run within the same operating system, the use of a UNIX domain socket is recommended to avoid accidentally exposing the backend to the network.

To run the Taler backend on TCP port 8888, use:

$ taler-config -s MERCHANT -o SERVE -V TCP
$ taler-config -s MERCHANT -o PORT -V 8888


Which currency the Web shop deals in, i.e. “EUR” or “USD”, is specified using the option


For testing purposes, the currency MUST match “KUDOS” so that tests will work with the Taler demonstration exchange at https://exchange.demo.taler.net/:

$ taler-config -s TALER -o CURRENCY -V KUDOS


In principle is possible for the backend to support different DBMSs. The option


specifies which DBMS is to be used. However, currently only the value “postgres” is supported. This is also the default.

In addition to selecting the DBMS software, the backend requires DBMS-specific options to access the database.

For postgres, you need to provide:


This option specifies a postgres access path using the format postgres:///$DBNAME, where $DBNAME is the name of the Postgres database you want to use. Suppose $USER is the name of the user who will run the backend process. Then, you need to first run

$ sudo -u postgres createuser -d $USER

as the Postgres database administrator (usually postgres) to grant $USER the ability to create new databases. Next, you should as $USER run:

$ createdb $DBNAME

to create the backend’s database. Here, $DBNAME must match the database name given in the configuration file.

To configure the Taler backend to use this database, run:

$ taler-config -s MERCHANTDB-postgres -o CONFIG \
  -V postgres:///$DBNAME

Now you should create the tables and indices. To do this, run as $USER:

$ taler-merchant-dbinit

You can improve your security posture if you now REVOKE the rights to CREATE, DROP or ALTER tables from $USER. However, if you do so, please be aware that you may have to temporarily GRANT those rights again when you update the merchant backend. For details on how to REVOKE or GRANT these rights, consult the Postgres documentation.


To add an exchange to the list of trusted payment service providers, you create a section with a name that starts with “MERCHANT-EXCHANGE-”. In that section, the following options need to be configured:

  • The “EXCHANGE_BASE_URL” option specifies the exchange’s base URL. For example, to use the Taler demonstrator, specify:

    $ taler-config -s MERCHANT-EXCHANGE-demo \
      -V https://exchange.demo.taler.net/
  • The “MASTER_KEY” option specifies the exchange’s master public key in base32 encoding. For the Taler demonstrator, use:

    $ taler-config -s MERCHANT-EXCHANGE-demo \
      -o MASTER_KEY \
  • The “CURRENCY” option specifies the exchange’s currency. For the Taler demonstrator, use:

    $ taler-config -s MERCHANT-EXCHANGE-demo \
      -o CURRENCY \
      -V KUDOS

Note that multiple exchanges can be added to the system by using different tokens in place of demo in the example above. Note that all of the exchanges must use the same currency: If the currency does not match the main currency from the “TALER” section, the exchange is ignored. If you need to support multiple currencies, you need to configure a backend per currency.


To add an auditor to the list of trusted auditors (which implies that all exchanges audited by this auditor will be trusted!) you create a section with a name that starts with “MERCHANT-AUDITOR-”. In that section, the following options need to be configured:

  • The “AUDITOR_BASE_URL” option specifies the auditor’s base URL. For example, to use the Taler demonstrator’s auditor, specify:

    $ taler-config -s MERCHANT-AUDITOR-demo \
      -V https://exchange.demo.taler.net/
  • The “AUDITOR_KEY” option specifies the auditor’s public key in base32 encoding. For the Taler demonstrator, use:

    $ taler-config -s MERCHANT-AUDITOR-demo \
      -o AUDITOR_KEY \
  • The “CURRENCY” option specifies the auditor’s currency. For the Taler demonstrator, use:

    $ taler-config -s MERCHANT-AUDITOR-demo \
      -o CURRENCY \
      -V KUDOS

Note that multiple auditors can be added to the system by using different tokens in place of demo in the example above. Note that all of the auditors must use the same currency: If the currency does not match the main currency from the “TALER” section, the auditor is ignored. If you need to support multiple currencies, you need to configure a backend per currency.

3.4.2. Sample backend configuration

The following is an example for a complete backend configuration:


PORT = 8888
DATABASE = postgres

CONFIG = postgres:///donations

EXCHANGE_BASE_URL = https://exchange.demo.taler.net/
# If currency does not match [TALER] section, the exchange
# will be ignored!

AUDITOR_BASE_URL = https://auditor.demo.taler.net/
# If currency does not match [TALER] section, the auditor
# will be ignored!

Given the above configuration, the backend will use a database named donations within Postgres.

The backend will deposit the coins it receives to the exchange at https://exchange.demo.taler.net/, which has the master key “CQQZ9DY3MZ1ARMN5K1VKDETS04Y2QCKMMCFHZSWJWWVN82BTTH00”.

Please note that doc/config.sh will walk you through all configuration steps, showing how to invoke taler-config for each of them.

3.4.3. Launching the backend

Assuming you have configured everything correctly, you can launch the merchant backend as $USER using

$ taler-merchant-httpd

To ensure the process runs always in the background and also after rebooting, you should use systemd, cron or some other init system of your operating system to launch the process. Consult the documentation of your operating system for how to start and stop daemons.

If everything worked as expected, the command

$ curl http://localhost:8888/

should return the message

Hello, I'm a merchant's Taler backend. This HTTP server is not for humans.

Please note that your backend is right now likely globally reachable. Production systems should be configured to bind to a UNIX domain socket and use TLS for improved network privacy, see Secure setup.

3.5. Instance setup

Before using the backend, you must at least configure the “default” instance.

Instances can be configured by POSTing a request to POST /private/instances. To create a first instance, create a file instance.json with an InstanceConfigurationMessage

  payto_uris : [ "payto://iban/IBANNUMBERHERE" ],
  id : "default",
  name: "example.com",
  address: { country : "zz" },
  jurisdiction: { country : "zz" },
  default_max_wire_fee: "KUDOS:1",
  default_wire_fee_amortization: 100,
  default_max_deposit_fee: "KUDOS:1",
  default_wire_transfer_delay: { d_ms : 1209600000 },
  default_pay_delay: { d_ms : 1209600000 },

You can then create the instance using:

$ wget --post-file=instance.json http://localhost:8888/private/instances

The base URL for the instance will then be http://localhost:8888/instances/default. You can create additional instances by changing the “id” value to identifies other than “default”.

Endpoints to modify (reconfigure), permanently disable (while keeping the data) or purge (deleting all associated data) instances exist as well and are documented in the Merchant Backend API documentation.

3.5.1. Accounts

The main configuration data that must be provided for each instance is the bank account information.

In order to receive payments, the merchant backend needs to communicate bank account details to the exchange.

The bank account information is provided in the form of a payto://-URL.

See RFC XXXX for the format of payto://-URLs.

3.6. Secure setup

The Taler backend does not include even the most basic forms of access control or transport layer security. Thus, production setups must deploy the Taler backend behind an HTTP(S) server that acts as a reverse proxy, performs TLS termination and authentication and then forwards requests to the backend.

3.6.1. Using UNIX domain sockets

To ensure that the merchant backend is not exposed directly to the network, you should bind the backend to a UNIX domain socket:

$ taler-config -s MERCHANT -o SERVE -V UNIX
$ taler-config -s MERCHANT -o UNIXPATH -V /some/path/here.sock

3.6.2. Reverse proxy configuration

Assuming your domain name is /example.com/ and you have TLS configured, a possible reverse proxy directive for Nginx would be:

proxy_pass http://unix:/some/path/here.sock;
proxy_redirect off;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host "example.com";
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto "https";

Leave out the last line if your Nginx reverse proxy does not have HTTPS enabled. Make sure to restart the /taler-merchant-httpd/ process after changing the SERVE configuration.

3.6.3. Access control

All endpoints with /private/ in the URL must be restricted to authorized users of the respective instance. Specifically, the HTTP server must be configured to only allow access to $BASE_URL/private/ to the authorized users of the default instance, and to $BASE_URL/instances/$ID/private/ to the authorized users of the instance $ID.

How access control is done (TLS client authentication, HTTP basic or digest authentication, etc.) is completely up to the merchant and does not matter to the Taler merchant backend.

Note that all of the other endpoints (without /private/) are expected to be fully exposed to the Internet, and wallets may have to interact with those endpoints directly without client authentication.

3.7. Upgrade procedure

This is the general upgrade procedure. Please see the release notes for your specific version to check if a particular release has special upgrade requirements.

Please note that upgrades are ONLY supported for released version of the merchant. Attempting to upgrade from or to a version in Git is not supported and may result in subtle data loss.

To safely upgrade the merchant, you should first stop the existing taler-merchant-httpd process, backup your merchant database (see Postgres manual), and then install the latest version of the code.

If you REVOKED database permissions, ensure that the rights to CREATE, DROP, and ALTER tables are GRANTed to $USER again. Then, run:

$ taler-merchant-dbinit

to upgrade the database to the latest schema. After that, you may again REVOKE the database permissions. Finally, restart the HTTP service, either via your systemd or init system, or directly using:

$ taler-merchant-httpd

3.8. Tipping visitors

Taler can also be used to tip Web site visitors. For example, you may be running an online survey, and you want to reward those people that have dutifully completed the survey. If they have installed a Taler wallet, you can provide them with a tip for their deeds. This section describes how to setup the Taler merchant backend for tipping.

There are three basic steps that must happen to tip a visitor.

3.8.1. Fund the reserve

First, the reserve must be setup in the merchant backend. A reserve is always tied to a particular instance. To create a reserve with 10 KUDOS at instance “default” using the demo exchange, use:

$ taler-merchant-setup-reserve \
  -a KUDOS:10 \
  -e https://exchange.demo.taler.net/ \
  -m http://localhost:8888/instances/default

The above command assumes that the merchant runs on localhost on port 8888. The current implementation of the tool does not yet support transmission of authentication information to the backend (see bug 6418).

The command will output a payto:// URI which specifies where to wire the funds and which wire transfer subject to use.

FIXME: add full example output.

In our example, the output for the wire transfer subject is:


You now need to make a wire transfer to the exchange’s bank account using the given wire transfer subject.

Make your wire transfer and (optionally) check at “https://exchange/reserves/QPE24X…” whether your transfer has arrived at the exchange.

Once the funds have arrived, you can start to use the reserve for tipping.

Note that an exchange will typically close a reserve after four weeks, wiring all remaining funds back to the sender’s account. Thus, you should plan to wire funds corresponding to a campaign of about two weeks to the exchange initially. If your campaign runs longer, you should setup another reserve every other week to ensure one is always ready.

3.8.2. Authorize a tip

When your frontend has reached the point where a client is supposed to receive a tip, it needs to first authorize the tip. For this, the frontend must use the POST /private/reserves/$RESERVE_PUB/authorize-tip API of the backend. To authorize a tip, the frontend has to provide the following information in the body of the POST request:

  • The amount of the tip
  • The justification (only used internally for the back-office)
  • The URL where the wallet should navigate next after the tip was processed
  • The tip-pickup URL (see next section)

In response to this request, the backend will return a tip token, an expiration time and the exchange URL. The expiration time will indicate how long the tip is valid (when the reserve expires). The tip token is an opaque string that contains all the information needed by the wallet to process the tip. The frontend must send this tip token to the browser in a special “402 Payment Required” response inside the X-Taler-Tip header.

The frontend should handle errors returned by the backend, such as missconfigured instances or a lack of remaining funds for tipping.

3.8.3. Picking up of the tip

The wallet will POST a JSON object to the shop’s POST /tips/$TIP_ID/pickup handler. The frontend must then forward this request to the backend. The response generated by the backend can then be forwarded directly to the wallet.

3.9. Advanced topics

3.9.1. Database Scheme

The merchant database must be initialized using taler-merchant-dbinit. This tool creates the tables required by the Taler merchant to operate. The tool also allows you to reset the Taler merchant database, which is useful for test cases but should never be used in production. Finally, taler-merchant-dbinit has a function to garbage collect a database, allowing administrators to purge records that are no longer required.

The database scheme used by the merchant looks as follows:


3.9.2. Configuration format

In Taler realm, any component obeys to the same pattern to get configuration values. According to this pattern, once the component has been installed, the installation deploys default values in ${prefix}/share/taler/config.d/, in .conf files. In order to override these defaults, the user can write a custom .conf file and either pass it to the component at execution time, or name it taler.conf and place it under $HOME/.config/.

A config file is a text file containing sections, and each section contains its values. The right format follows:

value1 = string
value2 = 23

value21 = string
value22 = /path22

Throughout any configuration file, it is possible to use $-prefixed variables, like $VAR, especially when they represent filesystem paths. It is also possible to provide defaults values for those variables that are unset, by using the following syntax: ${VAR:-default}. However, there are two ways a user can set $-prefixable variables:

by defining them under a [paths] section, see example below,


or by setting them in the environment:

$ export VAR=/x

The configuration loader will give precedence to variables set under [path], though.

The utility taler-config, which gets installed along with the exchange, serves to get and set configuration values without directly editing the .conf. The option -f is particularly useful to resolve pathnames, when they use several levels of $-expanded variables. See taler-config --help.

Note that, in this stage of development, the file $HOME/.config/taler.conf can contain sections for all the component. For example, both an exchange and a bank can read values from it.

The deployment repository contains examples of configuration file used in our demos. See under deployment/config.


Expectably, some components will not work just by using default values, as their work is often interdependent. For example, a merchant needs to know an exchange URL, or a database name.

Using taler-config

The tool taler-config can be used to extract or manipulate configuration values; however, the configuration use the well-known INI file format and can also be edited by hand.


$ taler-config -s $SECTION

to list all of the configuration values in section $SECTION.


$ taler-config -s $section -o $option

to extract the respective configuration value for option $option in section $section.

Finally, to change a setting, run

$ taler-config -s $section -o $option -V $value

to set the respective configuration value to $value. Note that you have to manually restart the Taler backend after you change the configuration to make the new configuration go into effect.

Some default options will use $-variables, such as $DATADIR within their value. To expand the $DATADIR or other $-variables in the configuration, pass the -f option to taler-config. For example, compare:

$ taler-config -s PATHS \
               -o TALER_DATA_HOME
$ taler-config -f -s PATHS \
               -o TALER_DATA_HOME

While the configuration file is typically located at $HOME/.config/taler.conf, an alternative location can be specified to taler-merchant-httpd and taler-config using the -c option.

3.9.3. Benchmarking

NOTE: This section is dated and should be reviewed!

FIXME: which coin denominations are needed for the benchmark?

FIXME: provide “minimum” configuration file!

FIXME: explain Postgres setup!

Setup: create Exchange account and two user accounts 42 and 43 at the bank:

$ taler-bank-manage django add_bank_account Exchange
$ taler-bank-manage django add_bank_account 42
$ taler-bank-manage django add_bank_account 43

Setup exchange password using:

$ taler-bank-manage django changepassword_unsafe Exchange PASSWORD

Configure merchant and exchange, then run:

$ taler-exchange-dbinit
$ taler-exchange-keyup
$ taler-merchant-dbinit

Launch bank, exchange and merchant backends:

$ taler-bank-manage serve-http &
$ taler-exchange-httpd &
$ taler-merchant-httpd &

The merchant codebase offers the taler-merchant-benchmark tool to populate the database with fake payments. This tool is in charge of starting a merchant, exchange, and bank processes, and provide them all the input to accomplish payments. Note that each component will use its own configuration (as they would do in production).

The tool takes all of the values it needs from the command line, with some of them being mandatory. Among those, we have:

  • --bank-url=URL Assume that the bank is serving under the base URL URL. This option is only actually used by the tool to check if the bank was well launched.
  • --merchant-url=URL Reach the merchant through URL, for downloading contracts and sending payments.

The tool then comes with two operation modes: ordinary, and corner. The first just executes normal payments, meaning that it uses the default instance and make sure that all payments get aggregated. The second gives the chance to leave some payments unaggregated, and also to use merchant instances other than the default (which is, actually, the one used by default by the tool).

Note: the abilty of driving the aggregation policy is useful for testing the backoffice facility.

Any subcommand is also equipped with the canonical --help option, so feel free to issue the following command in order to explore all the possibilities. For example:

$ taler-merchant-benchmark corner --help

will show all the options offered by the corner mode. Among the most interesting, there are:

  • --two-coins=TC This option instructs the tool to perform TC many payments that use two coins, because normally only one coin is spent per payment.
  • --unaggregated-number=UN This option instructs the tool to perform UN (one coin) payments that will be left unaggregated.
  • --alt-instance=AI This option instructs the tool to perform payments using the merchant instance AI (instead of the default instance)

As for the ordinary subcommand, it is worth explaining the following options:

  • --payments-number=PN Instructs the tool to perform PN payments.
  • --tracks-number=TN Instructs the tool to perform TN tracking operations. Note that the total amount of operations will be two times TN, since “one” tracking operation accounts for /track/transaction and /track/transfer. This command should only be used to see if the operation ends without problems, as no actual measurement of performance is provided (despite of the ’benchmark’ work used in the tool’s name).

3.10. Diagnostics

This chapter includes various (very unpolished) sections on specific topics that might be helpful to understand how the exchange operates, which files should be backed up. The information may also be helpful for diagnostics.

This chapter contains some legacy documentation we need to update before it can be considered even reasonably accurate.

3.10.1. Taler payments generator

This tool does not exist anymore right now…

The tool taler-merchant-generate-payments can be used to test the merchant backend installation. It implements all the payment’s steps in a programmatically way, relying on the backend you give it as input. Note that this tool gets installed along all the merchant backend’s binaries.

This tool gets configured by a config file, that must have the following layout:


# The exchange used during the test: make sure the merchant backend
# being tested accpets this exchange.
# If the sysadmin wants, she can also install a local exchange
# and test against it.
EXCHANGE = https://exchange.demo.taler.net/

# This value must indicate some URL where the backend
# to be tested is listening; it doesn't have to be the
# "official" one, though.
MERCHANT = http://localbackend/

# This value is used when the tool tries to withdraw coins,
# and must match the bank used by the exchange. If the test is
# done against the exchange at https://exchange.demo.taler.net/,
# then this value can be "https://bank.demo.taler.net/".
BANK = https://bank.demo.taler.net/

# The merchant instance in charge of serving the payment.
# Make sure this instance has a bank account at the same bank
# indicated by the 'bank' option above.
INSTANCE = default

# The currency used during the test. Must match the one used
# by merchant backend and exchange.

Run the test in the following way:

$ taler-merchant-generate-payments [-c config] [-e EURL] [-m MURL]

The argument config given to -c points to the configuration file and is optional – ^/.config/taler.conf will be checked by default. By default, the tool forks two processes: one for the merchant backend, and one for the exchange. The option -e (-m) avoids any exchange (merchant backend) fork, and just runs the generator against the exchange (merchant backend) running at EURL (MURL).

Please NOTE that the generator contains hardcoded values, as for deposit fees of the coins it uses. In order to work against the used exchange, those values MUST match the ones used by the exchange.

The following example shows how the generator “sets” a deposit fee of EUR:0.01 for the 5 EURO coin.

// from <merchant_repository>/src/sample/generate_payments.c
{ .oc = OC_PAY,
  .label = "deposit-simple",
  .expected_response_code = MHD_HTTP_OK,
  .details.pay.contract_ref = "create-proposal-1",
  .details.pay.coin_ref = "withdraw-coin-1",
  .details.pay.amount_with_fee = concat_amount (currency, "5"),
  .details.pay.amount_without_fee = concat_amount (currency, "4.99") },

The logic calculates the deposit fee according to the subtraction: amount_with_fee - amount_without_fee.

The following example shows a 5 EURO coin configuration - needed by the used exchange - which is compatible with the hardcoded example above.

value = EUR:5
duration_overlap = 5 minutes
duration_withdraw = 7 days
duration_spend = 2 years
duration_legal = 3 years
fee_withdraw = EUR:0.00
fee_deposit = EUR:0.01 # important bit
fee_refresh = EUR:0.00
fee_refund = EUR:0.00
rsa_keysize = 1024

If the command terminates with no errors, then the merchant backend is correctly installed.

After this operation is done, the merchant database will have some dummy data in it, so it may be convenient to clean all the tables; to this purpose, issue the following command:

$ taler-merchant-dbinit -r

3.11. Legacy

3.11.1. Installing Taler using Docker

This section provides instructions for the merchant backend installation using ‘Docker‘.

For security reasons, we run Docker against a VirtualBox instance, so the docker command should connect to a docker-machine instance that uses the VirtualBox driver.

Therefore, the needed tools are: “docker“, “docker-machine“, and “docker-compose“. Please refer to Docker’s official [1] documentation in order to get those components installed, as that is not in this manual’s scope.

Before starting to build the merchant’s image, make sure a “docker-machine“ instance is up and running.

Because all of the Docker source file are kept in our “deployment“ repository, we start by checking out the git://git.taler.net/deployment codebase:

$ git clone git://git.taler.net/deployment

Now we actually build the merchant’s image. From the same directory as above:

$ cd deployment/docker/merchant/
$ docker-compose build

If everything worked as expected, the merchant is ready to be launched. From the same directory as the previous step:

# Recall: the docker-machine should be up and running.
$ docker-compose up

You should see some live logging from all the involved containers. At this stage of development, you should also ignore some (harmless) error message from postresql about already existing roles and databases.

To test if everything worked as expected, it suffices to issue a simple request to the merchant, as:

$ curl http://$(docker-machine ip)/
# A greeting message should be returned by the merchant.